Earth Science August 2002

Earth Science August 2002 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
CHEMISTRY
Tuesday, August 13, 2002 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

1. Subatomic particles can usually pass undeflected through an atom because the volume of an atom is composed of

  • (1) an uncharged nucleus
  • (2) largely empty space
  • (3) neutrons
  • (4) protons
Answer: (2) largely empty space 

2. What is the total number of electrons in the valence shell of an atom of aluminum in the ground state?

  • (1) 8
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 10
Answer: (3) 3 

3. Which of these elements has physical and chemical properties most similar to silicon (Si)?

  • (1) germanium (Ge)
  • (2) lead (Pb)
  • (3) phosphorus (P)
  • (4) chlorine (Cl)
Answer: (1) germanium (Ge)  

4. What is the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of potassium-42?

  • (1) 15
  • (2) 19
  • (3) 39
  • (4) 42
Answer: (2) 19 

5. Given the equation:

H2O(s) ↔ H2O()

At which temperature will equilibrium exist when the atmospheric pressure is 1 atm?

  • (1) 0 K
  • (2) 100 K
  • (3) 273 K
  • (4) 373 K
Answer: (3) 273 K 

6. Which species represents a chemical compound?

  • (1) N2
  • (2) NH4 +
  • (3) Na
  • (4) NaHCO3
Answer: (4) NaHCO3 

7. Which mixture can be separated by using the equipment shown below?

  • (1) NaCl(aq) and SiO2(s)
  • (2) NaCl(aq) and C66H12O6(aq)
  • (3) CO2(aq) and NaCl(aq)
  • (4) CO2(aq) and C6H12O6(aq)
Answer: (1) NaCl(aq) and SiO2(s) 

8. Which reaction represents natural nuclear decay?

Answer: (3)  

9. If an equation is balanced properly, both sides of the equation must have the same number of

  • (1) atoms
  • (2) coefficients
  • (3) molecules
  • (4) moles of molecules
Answer: (1) atoms 

10. Which of the following elements has the highest electronegativity?

  • (1) H
  • (2) K
  • (3) Al
  • (4) Ca
Answer: (1) H 

11. Which formula represents an ionic compound?

  • (1) NaCl
  • (2) N2O
  • (3) HCl
  • (4) H2O
Answer: (1) NaCl 

12. Which species does not have a noble gas electron configuration?

  • (1) Na+
  • (2) Mg2+
  • (3) Ar
  • (4) S
Answer: (4) S 

13. Which statement correctly describes a chemical reaction at equilibrium?

  • (1) The concentrations of the products and reactants are equal.
  • (2) The concentrations of the products and reactants are constant.
  • (3) The rate of the forward reaction is less than the rate of the reverse reaction.
  • (4) The rate of the forward reaction is greater than the rate of the reverse reaction.
Answer: (2) The concentrations of the products and reactants are constant. 

14. Given the reaction:

CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → 2 H2O(g) + CO2(g)

What is the overall result when CH4(g) burns according to this reaction?

  • (1) Energy is absorbed and ∆H is negative.
  • (2) Energy is absorbed and ∆H is positive.
  • (3) Energy is released and ∆H is negative.
  • (4) Energy is released and ∆H is positive.
Answer: (3) Energy is released and ∆H is negative. 

15. A hydrated salt is a solid that includes water molecules within its crystal structure. A student heated a 9.10-gram sample of a hydrated salt to a constant mass of 5.41 grams. What percent by mass of water did the salt contain?

  • (1) 3.69%
  • (2) 16.8%
  • (3) 40.5%
  • (4) 59.5%
Answer: (3) 40.5% 

16. Which statement correctly describes a sample of gas confined in a sealed container?

  • (1) It always has a definite volume, and it takes the shape of the container.
  • (2) It takes the shape and the volume of any container in which it is confined.
  • (3) It has a crystalline structure.
  • (4) It consists of particles arranged in a regular geometric pattern.
Answer: (2) It takes the shape and the volume of any container in which it is confined. 

17. Which molecule contains a triple covalent bond?

  • (1) H2
  • (2) N2
  • (3) O22
  • (4) Cl2
Answer: (2) N2 

18. The solid and liquid phases of water can exist in a state of equilibrium at 1 atmosphere of pressure and a temperature of

  • (1) 0°C
  • (2) 100°C
  • (3) 273°C
  • (4) 373°C
Answer: (1) 0°C  

19. Which compound is an alcohol?

  • (1) propanal
  • (2) ethyne
  • (3) butane
  • (4) methanol
Answer: (4) methanol 

20. In which reaction is soap a product?

  • (1) addition
  • (2) substitution
  • (3) saponification
  • (4) polymerization
Answer: (3) saponification 

21. The spontaneous decay of an atom is called

  • (1) ionization
  • (2) crystallization
  • (3) combustion
  • (4) transmutation
Answer: (4) transmutation 

22. In any redox reaction, the substance that undergoes reduction will

  • (1) lose electrons and have a decrease in oxidation number
  • (2) lose electrons and have an increase in oxidation number
  • (3) gain electrons and have a decrease in oxidation number
  • (4) gain electrons and have an increase in oxidation number
Answer: (3) gain electrons and have a decrease in oxidation number 

23. Which electron configuration is correct for a sodium ion?

  • (1) 2–7
  • (2) 2–8
  • (3) 2–8–1
  • (4) 2–8–2
Answer: (2) 2–8 

24. In which equation does the term “heat” represent heat of fusion?

  • (1) NaCl(s) + heat → NaCl()
  • (2) NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) →
    NaCl(aq) + H2O() + heat
  • (3) H2O() + heat → H2O(g)
  • (4) H2O() + HCl(g) →
    H3O+(aq) + Cl–(aq) + heat
Answer: (1) NaCl(s) + heat → NaCl() 

25. Which substance is an Arrhenius acid?

  • (1) LiF(aq)
  • (2) HBr(aq)
  • (3) Mg(OH)2(aq)
  • (4) CH3CHO
Answer: (2) HBr(aq) 

26. Which type of emission has the highest penetrating power?

  • (1) alpha
  • (2) beta
  • (3) positron
  • (4) gamma
Answer: (4) gamma 

Note that questions 27 through 30 have only three choices.

27. As the elements in Group 17 are considered in order of increasing atomic number, the chemical reactivity of each successive element

  • (1) decreases
  • (2) increases
  • (3) remains the same
Answer: (1) decreases 

28. As the pressure on the surface of a liquid decreases, the temperature at which the liquid will boil

  • (1) decreases
  • (2) increases
  • (3) remains the same
Answer: (1) decreases 

29. As a Ca atom undergoes oxidation to Ca2+, the number of neutrons in its nucleus

  • (1) decreases
  • (2) increases
  • (3) remains the same
Answer: (3) remains the same 

30. As the temperature of a liquid increases, its vapor pressure

  • (1) decreases
  • (2) increases
  • (3) remains the same
Answer: (2) increases 

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