Earth Science 14 June 2018 Questions Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Thursday, June 14, 2018 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.
1. The photographs below show two types of solar eclipses. Letters A and B represent two celestial objects.
Which two celestial objects are represented by letters A and B?
- (1) A-Moon; B-Sun
- (2) A-Moon; B-Earth
- (3) A-Sun; B-Moon
- (4) A-Sun; B-Earth
2. Compared to the terrestrial planets, the Jovian planets
- (1) are less massive
- (2) are more dense
- (3) have greater orbital velocities
- (4) have shorter periods of rotation
3. Which event occurred more than 10 billion years ago?
- (1) Big Bang
- (2) origin of life on Earth
- (3) Pangaea begins to break up
- (4) origin of Earth and its Moon
4. In 1851, French physicist Léon Foucault used a swinging pendulum to demonstrate that Earth
- (1) is rotating
- (2) is revolving
- (3) has a curved surface
- (4) has a gravitational pull
5. Approximately how many degrees does Earth travel in its orbit in one month?
- (1) 1°
- (2) 15°
- (3) 30°
- (4) 360°
6. What is the relative humidity when the drybulb temperature is 16°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 10°C?
- (1) 6%
- (2) 14%
- (3) 33%
- (4) 45%
7. Boarding up windows would be one emergency action most likely taken to prepare for which natural disaster?
- (1) earthquake
- (2) hurricane
- (3) flood
- (4) tsunami
8. Which diagram best represents the general position and direction of flow of the polar front jet stream in the Northern Hemisphere during the winter months?
9. The diagram below represents four positions of the Moon, labeled A through D, as it orbits Earth.
Which diagram best represents the sequence of Moon phases, as seen by an observer in New York State, when the Moon travels from position A to position D in its orbit around Earth?
10. The diagrams below represent spectral lines of hydrogen gas observed in a laboratory and the spectral lines of hydrogen gas observed in the light from a distant star.
Compared to the spectral lines observed in the laboratory, the spectral lines observed in the light from the distant star have shifted toward the
- (1) red end of the spectrum, indicating the star’s movement toward Earth
- (2) red end of the spectrum, indicating the star’s movement away from Earth
- (3) blue end of the spectrum, indicating the star’s movement toward Earth
- (4) blue end of the spectrum, indicating the star’s movement away from Earth
11. The diagram below represents a cross-sectional view of the plane of Earth’s orbit around the Sun. A line drawn perpendicular to the plane of Earth’s orbit is shown on the diagram.
How many degrees is Earth’s rotational axis tilted with respect to the perpendicular line shown in the diagram?
- (1) 15°
- (2) 23.5°
- (3) 90°
- (4) 180°
12. The larger white dots in the diagrams below represent stars in the constellations Scorpius and Orion. Information indicating when these constellations are visible from New York State is provided below the diagrams.
Which statement best explains why these two constellations are visible in the night sky in the months identified?
- (1) Earth spins on its axis at a constant rate during a 24-hour period.
- (2) Earth spins on its axis at a variable rate during the year.
- (3) The nighttime side of Earth is facing different parts of our galaxy as Earth orbits the Sun.
- (4) The nighttime side of Earth is facing different parts of our galaxy as the stars orbit Earth.
13. Which table correctly shows the interior temperature, melting point, and state (phase) of matter of the materials located 4000 kilometers below Earth’s surface?
14. Which gas is a greenhouse gas that has increased in Earth’s atmosphere partly as a result of deforestation over the last 100 years?
- (1) ozone
- (2) oxygen
- (3) nitrogen
- (4) carbon dioxide
15. Which ocean current brings warm water to the southeastern tip of Africa?
- (1) Brazil Current
- (2) Agulhas Current
- (3) Guinea Current
- (4) Benguela Current
16. Which pie graph is shaded to best represent the approximate percentage of time that humans have existed during Earth’s entire history?
17. Volcanic ash can be used as a time marker to correlate rock layers because the ash
- (1) is deposited rapidly over a large area
- (2) represents a buried erosional surface
- (3) forms intrusive igneous rock
- (4) cuts across rock layers
18. The cross section below represents a mountain range. Points A and B represent locations on Earth’s surface.
Compared to the climate of location A, the climate of location B is most likely
- (1) cooler and wetter
- (2) cooler and drier
- (3) warmer and wetter
- (4) warmer and drier
19. The photograph below shows conglomerate composed of pebbles cemented together with calcite.
Compared to the ages of the calcite cement and the conglomerate, the relative age of the pebbles is
- (1) younger than both the calcite cement and the conglomerate
- (2) younger than the calcite cement, but the same age as the conglomerate
- (3) older than both the calcite cement and the conglomerate
- (4) older than the calcite cement, but the same age as the conglomerate
20. The cross section below represents some parts of Earth’s water cycle. Letters A, B, C, and D represent processes that occur during the cycle.
Which table correctly matches each letter with the process it represents?
21. Which table best shows the relationship between latitude and general climate conditions on Earth?
22. The photograph below shows different-sized rounded sediment.
Which table shows the most likely process and agent of erosion responsible for this rounded sediment?
23. The photograph below shows an outcrop with two basaltic intrusions, labeled A and B, in a rock unit, labeled C.
What is the relative age of these three rock units from oldest to youngest?
- (1) B —› A —› C
- (2) B —› C —› A
- (3) C —› A —› B
- (4) C —› B —› A
24. The world map below shows Earth’s major tectonic plate boundaries. Letters A through D represent four surface locations.
Which location is on a major rift valley?
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
25. The first P-wave of an earthquake took 11 minutes to travel to a seismic station from the epicenter of the earthquake. What is the seismic station’s distance to the epicenter of the earthquake and how long did it take for the first S-wave to travel that distance?
- (1) Distance to epicenter: 3350 km
S-wave travel time: 4 min 50 sec
- (2) Distance to epicenter: 3350 km
S-wave travel time: 6 min 10 sec
- (3) Distance to epicenter: 7600 km
S-wave travel time: 9 min
- (4) Distance to epicenter: 7600 km
S-wave travel time: 20 min
26. The Catskills are commonly called mountains, but are actually part of the Allegheny Plateau. The Catskills are classified as a plateau because of their
- (1) low elevation
- (2) bedrock structure
- (3) bedrock age
- (4) high degree of metamorphism
27. The minimum stream velocity necessary to transport a sediment particle that is 0.1 centimeter in diameter is closest to
- (1) 0.1 cm/s
- (2) 0.002 cm/s
- (3) 5.5 cm/s
- (4) 10.0 cm/s
28. Which rock is classified as an evaporite?
- (1) clasticshale
- (2) foliated phyllite
- (3) nonfoliated marble
- (4) crystalline rock salt
29. Which pair of elements makes up most of Earth’s crust by volume?
- (1) nitrogen and potassium
- (2) oxygen and silicon
- (3) hydrogen and oxygen
- (4) potassium and oxygen
30. The cross section below represents zones of soil labeled A, B, and C. Letter D represents underlying bedrock.
Which letter identifies the zone having the most organic and weathered material?
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
Earth Science 14 June 2018 Questions Answers Keys
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